How does the escalation of domestic violence during COVID-10 exemplify the concept of the continuum of violence? I

     Globally, one in three women will experience gender-based violence (GBV) at the hands of an intimate partner.  Data shows that since the outbreak of COVID-19, GBV in the form of domestic violence, particularly targeted against women and girls, has escalated.  In fact, domestic violence has been so pervasive during the pandemic that the UN has called it a “shadow pandemic” (UN, 2021). 
Question #3.  How does the escalation of domestic violence during COVID-10 exemplify the concept of the continuum of violence? In answering this question address:  how women and girls have experienced GBV pre-conflict (pre-pandemic), conflict (during the pandemic) and how do you think women and girls might fare post-conflict (post-pandemic) as things get back to “normal” based on the status of women currently in society, e.g. whether you think levels of domestic violence will decrease as women and girls are able to spend more time outside of the home and the stress of the pandemic subsides.  
     A gender perspective is defined as “a way of assessing gender-based differences of women and men reflected in their social roles and interactions, in the distribution of power and access to resources” (NATO, 2012).  We will expand on that definition to include all genders, plus intersecting factors such as those mentioned previously such as race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, ageism, ability, income level or religious affiliation
    In integrating a gender perspective, gender mainstreaming is a policy strategy which considers both women’s and men’s interests and concerns.  A gender analysis is an important aspect of gender mainstreaming as a systematic methodology for examining the differences in roles and norms for women and men, girls and boys; the different levels of power they hold; their differing needs, constraints, and opportunities; and the impact of these differences in their lives.
Question #5.  In applying a gender perspective, what were the impacts on different genders during the 2005 tsunami in Indonesia?  In answering this question, address the following: the capacities and vulnerabilities of women and men prior to and after the disaster; how women and men were affected and responded differently to the tsunami and to what extent; the different roles women and men played in ensuring the survival of themselves, their families and communities in the face of disaster; the different resources (economic, financial, physical, natural, other assets) and information that were available to women and men at the time of the disaster.

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